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FCC Cyclone | Catalyst Hopper | Particle Separation


FCC Cyclones – Fourth Stage & Catalyst Hopper Cyclones

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCC Cyclones) are the principal technologies that enable the critical process within heavy oil refining of converting the heavy oils into more valuable gasoline and lighter products. More than half of the refinery's heavy petroleum is processed through the FCC Cyclones, and the FCC Cyclones are also an important source of butene and pentene olefins used in refinery processes.

Our Emtrol-Buell brand has supplied more FCC Cyclones to refineries and petrochemical plants worldwide than any other supplier, so our experience in this area is unequaled. Our FCC Cyclones are designed to enhance separation efficiency, accommodate increased catalyst loading, and are tailored to meet the application needs of refineries and petrochemical plants.

We custom-engineer the following products at the highest quality:

  • FCC Cyclones - Patented Beam Hanger Support System
  • FCC Cyclones - Reactor
  • FCC Cyclones - Regenerator
  • FCC Cyclones - Third Stage Separator Systems
  • FCC Cyclones - Fourth Stage & Catalyst Hopper Cyclones


FCC Cyclones - Fourth Stage Cyclones

The Cyclone Vessel, which is the common hopper for the cyclone catalyst discharge, is designed to hold the catalyst collected over several days. However, normally the catalyst from the Cyclone Vessel is continuously conveyed to the Fourth Stage Cyclone by a small amount of gas, usually from 1 to 3% of the gases entering the cyclones. During the travel through the un-insulated line and the Fourth Stage Cyclone, a considerable amount of heat is lost from the catalyst and gases.

Additional cooling of the catalyst occurs in the Fines Collection Vessel. The gases from the Fourth Stage Cyclone pass through a critical orifice where the gas pressure is reduced for discharge through the stack. When the Fines Collection Vessel is to be emptied into a closed truck for transport to a land fill, the valve above the vessel is closed, a vent valve is opened to relieve the pressure, and the valve beneath the vessel is opened so that the catalyst may discharge into the truck.


FCC Cyclones - Catalyst Hopper Cyclones

Our Catalyst Hopper Cyclones are easily adaptable to a variety of applications, including loading and/or unloading of Fresh and Spent Catalyst Hoppers, or as auxiliary hoppers for special additives.  These cyclones are typically designed to minimize catalyst lost to atmosphere in the vent from the hopper during loading and/or unloading operations of the hopper. 



  • Low Total Cost of Ownership
  • Maximum performance and efficiency
  • High reliability
  • Enhanced to increase separation efficiency
  • Premium quality material construction to withstand severe operating conditions


  • Enhanced aspect ratio of the cyclone inlet
  • New crossover duct design
  • Minimized use of edge bars in the refractory linings
  • Standard or complex designs
  • Dust hopper and lined dipleg stub designs that enhance catalyst discharge while decreasing erosion effects


FCC Cyclone | Fourth Stage Cyclones
FCC Cyclone | Catalyst Hopper | Particle Separation